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1522 Complutensian Polyglot Bible
The C-P was the first of the three great polyglots. Later in the 16c, 1568-72, the Antwerp Polyglot would be printed and in 1653-57 Brian Walton would print his magnus opus 7 giant volumes, the Walton Polyglot.
The oversight behind the C-P project was granted to Cardinal Jimenez.To accomplish the magnitude of the project one would compare the insurmountable difficulties of such an undertaking to the construction in the 20th century of the Panama Canal.
The project would require a series of undesigned coincidences to overcome the mental and religious prejudices that we associate with the Middle Ages. Technology and science would be in their infancy. Galileo and Copernicus would make discoveries, men like daVinci would challenge the mind of man to fantastical concepts that brought great accomplishments.
Concurrent to an emerging brave new world that was in process, men were casting off the yoke of bondage that was stifling the very spirit of mankind. The God of creation was going to be made known to the European minds by virtue of His Word going free in the uncorrupted language of the Bible.
It was in Alcala, Spain, that Cardinal Jimenez undertook to challenge the corrupted text of the Latin Vulgate by assembling extremely learned men of trilingual learning in Hebrew, Greek and Latin. These peculiar men who were proficient in the languages of the ancient Scriptures were Jewish by birth but converted to Christianity when their race was expelled from Spain in 1492 during the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella. They were called “conversos”.
While Columbus was discovering America, the Jews of Spain were seeking asylum in Italy and Greece from the Spanish Inquisition. During the expulsion many learned Spanish Jews converted to Christianity which gave them license to remain in Spain. They were skilled in Hebrew, Aramaic and other middle eastern languages that permitted Cardinal Jimenez to have a reservoir of learning at his disposal that would be essential to the C-P.
The C-P Bible would be produced in an environment made possible by extremely high academic standards and freedom of thought that Alcala with its 7000 students would afford. Cardinal Jimenez was an integral and essential person to the atmosphere created by such academic freedom. The ingredients for such a recipe to bring to completion such an ambitious project were great financial resources, brilliant Greek and Hebrew scholars who were uncorrupted by High Church influence and wholly committed and devoted to God.
Cardinal Jimenez was that person, chosen by God, to lead, assemble, encourage and energize his team of devoted men who would by virtue of the end product, a six volume work, that would become the foundation for the Renaissance throughout Europe and England. The minds of men were being set free from the bondage of man to serve Jesus Christ through His faith.
The resistance to correcting the Vulgate was overwhelming. Ignorant men refused to even think of the Vulgate as a corrupted text. Their resistance to correction was the impetus to create an Inquisition that rained down terror on anyone who challenged the “sacred Vulgate”; nevertheless, Jimenez stood with great faith against the ignorant and corrupt.
Opponents of the C-P were unrelenting in their desires to defeat the project. Their religious fervor determined to crush Jimenez’ efforts. In spite of the enormous quantity of errors, the Vulgate was defended by its ignorant adherents with unrelenting passion. In a desperate attempt to end the project, the Inquisition was called to stop the printing. Using intimidation that literally threatened the lives of the editors, Jimenez protected his committed scholars. The Inquisition threat was forever neutralized in 1507 when Jimenez became the Inquisitor General. God works in mysterious ways!
The “conversos” (converted Jews) labored tirelessly to bring the project to completion. The “conversos” of Alcala made their contribution to the establishing of the text of the Hebrew Old Testament since the Polyglot of Antwerp followed mainly their version, and since that of London in turn followed mainly the Antwerp Polyglot.
The C-P Polyglot resulted in the first Greek translation of the Old Testament in print that we commonly refer to as the Septuagint.
Tomes I-IV contain the Old Testament with the Hebrew text in the outer columns. The Greek of the Septuagint in the inner column and the Latin Vulgate in the center. There are no verse divisions. There are chapter divisions with subdivisions marked by capitals A, B, C, D.
Tome V contains the New Testament in Greek and Latin in two columns. The Acts of the Apostles is positioned after the Epistle to the Hebrews following the Pauline Epistles.
Tome VI contains aids for students of the Hebrew and Greek texts; furthermore, the editors provided a dictionary of Hebrew and Aramaic words with Latin equivalents. Of essential assistance to the students,who were only learned in the Latin were explanations of the meaning of the Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek names in the Bible.
In 1453 Constantinople fell to the Turks. In 1455 John Gutenberg invented the printing press with moveable type. The first book printed was the Vulgate Bible with all of its errors and corruptions of New Testament doctrine. As the Greek speaking immigrants fled into Europe in the wake of the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the proliferation of 1200 years of Greek studies and history with God’s Word at its heart was poised to destroy the Latin speaking worlds’ monopoly on education.
The Renaissance was being birthed by these series of undesigned coincidences. The strangle-hold on religion and knowledge by power brokers in the Catholic Church was going to be broken. But, what price freedom?
Six hundred copies were authorized by Pope Leo X. A large number (450) of that quantity were destroyed when the ship transporting them to Italy sank to the bottom of the sea. Perhaps, 150 sets survive in complete sets of fragments. In U. S. dollars the cost of the project was in excess of $12,000,000!
Some important and interesting facts about the Complutensian Polyglot:
1. The Polyglot marks a significant period in the history of the Church as well new developments in the European mind that helped the Reformation era immensely.
2. Converted Jewish scholars made the task an intellectual masterpiece.
3. The Polyglot was historically important because it exposed the Vulgate errors which was regarded as the fundamental text of the Bible.
4. The "academics" of that day were challenged without exception because of the Polyglot - including Erasmus.
5. Volume 6 contains several aids for students of Hebrew and Greek text. The largest contribution is a dictionary of Hebrew and Aramaic words with Latin equivalents, described by the editors as "most useful and correct."
6. The Polyglot set a bold standard in that there were very few printing errors.
7. The original Prologue in Volume One offers this explanation: "We are impelled by many reasons to print the original text of Holy Scripture, since no version can translate faithfully all the force and naturalness of the original, especially when it treats of the language in which God Himself has spoken, which words were, to speak thus taken from the senses and fountains of mysteries which only can be glimpsed of known from the original in which the Holy Scriptures were written."
ITEM # FR-CP1522: $2,495 - Complutensian Polyglot 6-Volume - Standard Leather Binding
ITEM # FR-CP1522: $7,950 - Complutensian Polyglot 6-Volume - Deluxe Leather Binding
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